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Vling

Constructed Language Project L15 by Viktor Medrano

Language Description

Vocabulary

Updates

[2003.10.03]I initiate the Vling (L15) project. I lay out the initial phonology. I randomly generate the initial vocabulary using LangMaker with 3000 words. 1600+ words are defined. I want this language to have an Oriental flavour with the main influences from Thai, Vietnamese, Cantonese, Esperanto, Lojban, Mandarin, and Japanese.
[2003.10.04]I start on the description for tones, deciding on five tones: low, mid, high, falling, and rising. I decide the parts of speech which correspond to each tone.
[2003.10.05]I rethink the parts of speech which correspond to each tone. I start putting the tone numbers in the vocabulary.
[2003.10.08]I retouch the numerals.
[2003.10.09]I start on the description for the basic sentence structure.
[2003.10.14]I add descriptions of verb temporal and spatial tenses, as well as aspect.
[2003.10.15]I add personal pronouns and verb modals.
[2003.10.16]I add information on verb transitivity and voice, as well as noun definiteness and number.
[2003.10.20]I explain proper nouns and names, as well as compound words.
[2003.10.21]I expound on interrogatives and head-first relative clauses.
[2003.10.22]I explain the numerals and head-last relative clauses.
[2003.10.23]I translate Chapter 1 of the Tao Te Ching.

nug4 peim3 o1 tu1 tau2, eim1 uod4 o1 tu1 tau2 zeg5.
nug4 dlek3 o1 dlek2, eim1 uod4 o1 dlek2 zeg5.
jiot1 tliun1-hiud5 tlin2, dlek1-flueng3.
jiot1 dak4 "ze2" saub1 xuag2, nug4 zod4 dlek3.
djup4, jiot1 tai4 zod1-lia5, o1 zuak2 a1 gleib2 zeit3.
jiot1 tai4 mam5, o1 tliud2 a1 gleib2 zeit3.
a1 nua5 plaig2 keing3 tsoin1 neik5 tlin2, eim1 seit4 zod1-dlek5.
iam1 a1 plaig2 ug3.
a1 ug2 saub1 ug2 vlu3 u1 gued2 saub1 xuag5 vau2.

tu1 tau1-te1-txing2, piat2 mun4 xua5

Tao can be talked about, but not the Eternal Tao.
Names can be named, but not the Eternal Name.
As the origin of heaven-and-earth, it is nameless:
As "the Mother" of all things, it is nameable.
So, as ever hidden, we should look at its inner essence.
As always manifest, we should look at its outer aspects.
These two flow from the same source, though differently named;
And both are called mysteries.
The Mystery of mysteries is the Door of all essence.

Tao Te Ching, Chapter 1

[2003.10.26]I add a nominalizer.
[2003.10.31]I add a table for pronunciation. I introduce a complement marker u1.
[2003.11.01]I add a section on appositives.
[2003.11.02]I do another translation:

gliag5 gio2 uog1 nuing1-tsiun2 hium1 bluo2,
gi5 uog1 txuek1-ngiu2 zuak1 niad5 nguim2 vleid5,
moi5 uog1 vlueng5 txiog2 kluong1-fue5,
xua5 uog1 dleid5 ngiu2 iop1 mion5 djuak2 dleid5
zuak1 pek2 tu1 mo1-do5 gop1 a1 flon2 dein3.
xua5 gio2 uog1 flio3 o1 xuag5 niad2, xua5 gio2 uog1 tliat3,
xua5 gio2 uog1 djai3 o1 xuag5 niad2 iam1 dleid4 siep3,
zuak1 pek2 tu1 mo1-do5 gop1 a1 flon2 dein3.
Three Rings for the Elven-kings under the sky,
Seven for the Dwarf-lords in their halls of stone,
Nine for Mortal Men doomed to die,
One for the Dark Lord on his dark throne
In the Land of Mordor where the Shadows lie.
One Ring to rule them all, One Ring to find them,
One Ring to bring them all and in the darkness bind them
In the Land of Mordor where the Shadows lie.

From Lord of the Rings by J. R. R. Tolkien

[2003.11.08]I expand the section on verb voice.
[2003.11.16]I add participles.
[2005.02.26]I add CXS representations for phonemes.
[2005.10.17]I add verb serialization. I add topicalization. I add greetings.
[2005.10.18]I expand on the name marker for use with foreign terms and borrowings.
[2005.10.19]I make topicalization position-free within a sentence. I add exclamatory markers.
[2005.10.21]I expound on telling time and weather.
[2005.10.22]I explain quotations.
[2009.10.11]I switch to the IPA to represent phonemes.
[2009.12.19]I add the state-change aspect.

Language Description

Pronunciation

Phonemic representations in the IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet) are given within slashes / /.

 UnvoicedVoiced
Stopsp - as in 'spot' /p/
t - as in 'stick' /t/
k - as in 'ski' /k/
b - as in 'bog' /b/
d - as in 'dog' /d/
g - as in 'gum' /g/
Fricatesf - as in 'fig' /f/
s - as in 'song' /s/
x - as 'sh' in 'ship' /ʃ/
h - as in 'hum' /h/
v - as in 'van' /v/
z - as in 'zoo' /z/
j - as 'z' in 'azure' or 'j' in 'bonjour' /ʒ/
Affricatests - as in 'tsunami' /c/
tx - as 'ch' in 'chip' /tʃ/
dz - as in 'adze' /dz/
dj - as 'j' in 'joy' /dʒ/
Clusterspl, tl, kl, fl
/pl tl kl fl/
bl, dl, gl, vl
/bl dl gl vl/
Liquid l - as in 'lamp' /l/
Nasals n - as in 'nest' /n/
m - as in 'moon' /m/
ng - as in 'sing' (even initially) /ŋ/

Vowelsa - as in 'father' /a/
e - as in 'pet' /ɛ/
i - as in 'pit' /ɪ/
o - as in 'tot' /ɔ/
u - as in 'lunar' /u/
y - as 'a' in 'about' (schwa sound) /ə/
Diphthongsai, au, ei, ia, ie, io, iu, oi, ua, ue, uo, ui
/aj aw ɛj ja jɛ jɔ ju ɔj wa wɛ wɔ wɪ/

When a word begins with a vowel or diphthong, there is a glottal stop /ʔ/ in front of it. A 'glottal stop' is like the hiatus between the o's in the word 'co-ordinate'.

Phonotactics

Initials (I)

p, t, k, b, d, g, f, v, pl, tl, kl, bl, dl, gl, fl, vl, s, z, x, j, ts, dz, tx, dj, m, n, ng, l, h

Middles (M)

a, e, i, o, u, y, ai, au, ei, ia, ie, io, iu, oi, ua, ue, uo, ui

Finals (F)

p, t, k, b, d, g, m, n, ng

Syllabic Structure

The structure of a syllable is (I)M(F) where I and F may or may not be present, but M is always present.

Letterals, Names of Letters

Remember that 'y' is a schwa sound like the 'a' in 'about'. The number 1 represents tone 1, the lowest level tone in the pitch scale. When ordering words in a list in Vling, the same algorithm as in English is used (specifically, ASCII sort order).

Consonants

py1, ty1, ky1, by1, dy1, gy1, fy1, vy1, ply1, tly1, kly1, bly1, dly1, gly1, fly1, vly1, sy1, zy1, xy1, jy1, tsy1, dzy1, txy1, djy1, my1, ny1, ngy1, ly1, hy1

Vowels and Diphthongs

a1-ka1, e1-ka1, i1-ka1, o1-ka1, u1-ka1, y1-ka1, ai1-ka1, au1-ka1, ei1-ka1, ia1-ka1, ie1-ka1, io1-ka1, oi1-ka1, iu1-ka1, ua1-ka1, ue1-ka1, uo1-ka1, ui1-ka1

Tones

TonePart of SpeechExample
1. Low particles, prepositions, conjunctions, letteralsbog1 ("after")
2. Mid nounszu2 ("hand")
3. High verbsdjai3 ("bring")
4. Falling adverbsngia4 ("always")
5. Rising adjectives, numeralsbiu5 ("conscious")

Words can be converted from one part of speech to another by simply changing the tone: tsuet3 ("to be beautiful"), tsuet2 ("beauty"), tsuet5 ("beautiful"), tsuet4 ("beautifully"). It is the same with personal pronouns: ngiod2 ("I, me"), ngiod5 ("my"), ngiod4 ("in my way, like me"), ngiod3 ("to be I").

Basic Sentence Structure

A sentence may contain the constituents Subject (S), Verb (V), and Object (O). In English, the standard word order is SVO ("The cat (S) eats (V) the fish (O)"), but Vling has free word order: SVO, SOV, VSO, VOS, OVS, or OSV. The order determines emphasis. The constituents closer to the beginning of a phrase have more emphasis than those near the end. The subject is preceded by the marker a1 and the direct object by the marker o1:

a1 ob2 mia3 o1 txain2.
SUBJ cat eat OBJ fish
The cat eats the fish.

mia3 o1 txain2 a1 ob2.
eat OBJ fish SUBJ cat
The cat eats the fish.

o1 txain2 mia3 a1 ob2.
OBJ fish eat SUBJ cat
The cat eats the fish.

Vling is a "pro-drop" language in that portions of phrases which can be deduced from context may be dropped, unsaid. For example, an entire subject can be dropped.

mia3 o1 txain2.
eat OBJ fish
[...] eats the fish.

Noun Definiteness

There is no definite article ('the') and no indefinite article ('a/an'). Only used when concision is required, the closest equivalents would be nua5, ik5, and pliang5 ('this, that, yonder') to show definiteness or xua5 ('one') to show indefiniteness. There is a marker ton1 to indicate newly introduced information and a marker kim1 to indicate previously introduced information. These are used only when concision is required.

a1 ton1 ob2 mia3 o1 kim1 txain2.
SUBJ NEW cat eat OBJ OLD fish
A cat (newly introduced) eats the fish (previously talked about).

Noun Number

The bare noun is numberless, neither plural nor singular. Plurality can be shown by using numerals, as well as the adjectives gain5, mua5, and giu5 ('many, few, several').

Adjectives

Adjectives and numerals may be placed before or after the noun.

o1 giu5 txain2 mia3 a1 ik5 ob2 glu5 gliag5.
OBJ several fish eat SUBJ that cat big three
Those three big cats eat several fish.

Temporal Tense

Tense is completely optional. Often context disambiguates when an event occurs. However, if you would like to be specific about time, there are adverbs which are placed before the verb. Combinations of these with other adverbs are possible.

fliop4past
neid4present
dlaung4future
nguat4short time distance
dloip4medium time distance
zag4long time distance
tsab4short time interval
hion4medium time interval
djait4long time interval

a1 tsiun2 fliop4 djait4 djin3.
SUBJ king PAST LONG-INTERVAL sneeze
The king sneezed for a long time.

a1 tsiun2 zag4 djin3.
SUBJ king LONG-DISTANCE sneeze
The king sneezed a long time ago or will sneeze a long time from now.

a1 tsiun2 fliop4 zag4 djin3.
SUBJ king PAST LONG-DISTANCE sneeze
The king sneezed a long time ago.

Spatial Tense

If you would like to be specific about spatial tense, there are adverbs for it which are placed before the verb. Combinations of these with other adverbs are possible.

me4here
gia4there
vaing4there yonder
paig4short spatial distance
glud4medium spatial distance
vuing4long spatial distance
tlok4short spatial interval
vlueb4medium spatial interval
zon4long spatial interval

a1 tsiun2 me4 djin3.
SUBJ king HERE sneeze
The king sneezes here.

a1 tsiun2 vuing4 djin3.
SUBJ king LONG-DISTANCE sneeze
The king sneezes very far from here.

a1 tsiun2 zon4 djin3.
SUBJ king LONG-INTERVAL sneeze
The king sneezes for a long stretch (of space).

Verb Aspect

An aspectual adverb may be placed before a verb to describe the action. Here is a list of the aspectual adverbs:

MarkerAspectEnglish Example
moing4perfectiveI was eating a mango when she entered.
txiud4imperfectiveI was eating a mango when she entered.
gaing4habitualI used to eat a mango every morning.
ngium4progressiveI am eating a mango.
glai4perfect (retrospective)I have eaten a mango.
kuog4prospectiveI am about to eat a mango.
kleim4inceptiveI am beginning to eat a mango.
gliep4inchoativeIt is turning yellow.
djuek4cessativeI am quitting eating mangoes.
txaung4pausativeI stopped eating mangoes for awhile.
txung4resumptiveI resumed eating mangoes.
flueb4punctualThe camera flashed.
vlam4durativeI ate a mango for an hour.
plium4delimitativeI walked for a bit.
bliug4protractiveI ate mangoes on and on.
fuik4superfectiveI kept eating my mango after the meal was over.
nab4iterativeI ate mangoes regularly.
die4randomI ate mangoes here and there.
giud4frequentativeI ate mangoes frequently.
te4semelfactiveI knocked on the door.
keng4simulfactiveI ate a mango in one fell swoop.
paud4experientialI have eaten a mango before.
foi4intentionalI looked at the mango.
fep4accidentalI fell on my butt.
ging4distributiveI ate the mangoes one by one.
vuam4alternationI ate a mango, did something else, ate a mango, did something else, etc.
loid4genericMangoes grow on trees.
puop4completiveEat it all up.
nod4intensiveIt glared.
gle4moderativeIt shined.
paib4attenuativeIt glimmered.
ke4crescendoIt glimmered, shined, then glared.
piom4decrescendoIt glared, shined, then glimmered.
tuing4future utilityI buy mangoes (for future eating).
dap4state-changeIt is sunny (but it was not before).

a1 tsiun2 fliop4 ngium4 djin3.
SUBJ king PAST PROGRESSIVE sneeze
The king was sneezing.

a1 tsiun2 fliop4 ke4 djin3.
SUBJ king PAST DECRESCENDO sneeze
The king sneezed a lot, sneezed a bit, then sneezed a little.

a1 tsiun2 fliop4 die4 djin3.
SUBJ king PAST RANDOM sneeze
The king sneezed here and there (at random).

a1 tsiun2 fliop4 vuam4 djin3.
SUBJ king PAST ALTERNATION sneeze
The king sneezed, then did something else, sneezed again, then did something else, and so on alternating.

Verb Modals

English PatternVling PatternExample
can V / may Vnug4 Va1 ngiod2 nug4 mia3. ("I can eat / am able to eat.")
should V / must Vflaim4 Va1 ngiod2 flaim4 mia3. ("I should eat / ought to eat.")
want to / wish to Vvlie4 Va1 ngiod2 vlie4 mia3. ("I want to eat / wish to eat.")

Imperative mood or command is indicated by placing the marker au1 at the end of the phrase. A polite request uses ei1.

mia3 au1!
eat COMMAND
Eat!

mia3 ei1!
eat REQUEST
Please eat!

a1 gleib2 mia3 au1!
SUBJ we eat COMMAND
Let's eat!

a1 mion2 mia3 au1!
SUBJ he/she eat COMMAND
Let him/her eat!

Complements

Intransitive verbs, vlu3 ('to be') and aum3 ('to become'), which take a noun complement, use the complement marker u1.

a1 og2 aum3 u1 ple2.
SUBJ man become COMPL spider
The man becomes a spider.

a1 og2 vlu3 u1 ple2.
SUBJ man be COMPL spider
The man is a spider.

u1 ple2 a1 og2 vlu3.
COMPL spider SUBJ man be
The man is a spider.

a1 mion2 nuob3 o1 og2 u1 ple2.
SUBJ he/she consider OBJ man COMPL spider
He/she considers the man a spider.

a1 mion2 txuong3 o1 kli2 u1 vlaid5.
SUBJ he/she paint OBJ house COMPL purple
He/she paints the house purple.

Verb Voice

Vling has five grammatical verb voices: 'The cat eats' (active), 'The fish is eaten' (passive), 'The man makes the cat eat' (causative), 'The cat feeds itself' (reflexive), 'The cats feed each other / one another' (reciprocative).

VoiceMarkerExample
Active__a1 og2 tug3.
SUBJ man walk
The man walks.
Passivezod4zod4 mia3 a1 txain2.
PASSIVE eat SUBJ fish
The fish is eaten.
Causativeduob4a1 og2 duob4 tug3 o1 dli2.
SUBJ man CAUS walk OBJ dog
The man walks the dog.
Reflexivevliok4a1 ob2 vliok4 tlaub3.
SUBJ cat REFLEX feed
The cat feeds itself.
Reciprocativepik4a1 ob2 pik4 tlaub3.
SUBJ cat RECIPROC feed
The cats feed each other.

Any adjective (like 'tuong5' - blue) can be turned into a 'stative verb' (like 'tuong3' - to be blue) as in 'The man blues'.

a1 og2 tuong3.
SUBJ man blue
The man 'blues'. (The man is blue in colour.)

a1 og2 duob4 tuong3 o1 kli2.
SUBJ man CAUS blue OBJ house
The man 'blues' the house. (The man turns the house blue.)

Participles and Gerunds

Used as prefixes, the tense, aspect, and voice markers can be compounded to form participles and gerunds:

[TENSE]+[ASPECT]+[VOICE]+root. (Use tone1, except for the root.)

dein3 a1 ngium1-djin5 tsiun2.
exist SUBJ PROGRESSIVE-sneeze king
There is / It is the sneezing king.

a1 ngium1-djin2 plai3.
SUBJ PROGRESSIVE-sneeze be-heavy
The sneezing is heavy.

dein3 a1 zod1-lia5 gio2.
exist SUBJ PASSIVE-hide ring
There is / It is the hidden ring.

dein3 a1 dlaung1-zod1-lia5 gio2.
exist SUBJ FUTURE-PASSIVE-hide ring
There is / It is the ring about to be hidden.

Verb Serialization

A sequence of consecutive verbs, all sharing the same subject, is a common strategy.

a1 og2 nguig3 plap3 biab3 mia3.
SUBJ man go buy come eat
The man went out to buy something and brought it back to eat.

A group of simultaneous actions is also possible.

a1 og2 ngiab3 diu3 klop3 nguig3.
SUBJ man hurry run cross go
The man hurriedly ran across.

Compound Words

(a) The elements are opposite in meaning to one another.

juong1-tloi2 (night and day)
txuak1-ze2 (father and mother)
foip1-nung5 (black and white)

(b) The elements are of similar species.

dluam1-pui2 (tables and chairs)

(c) The first element further defines the second.

tun1-ngiu2 (headmaster; head of the school)
taud1-og2 (medicine man)
fueg1-ip2 (toothache)

(d) The multiple attributes are left-grouping.

saim1-tseg1-glie1-txiog2
((old book) love) person
antique book lover

All the syllables of the compound word, except the last syllable, always have tone 1. The last syllable carries the tone that indicates the part of speech for the whole compound word. Below is a compound word which is an adjective:

saim1-tseg1-glie1-txiog5 lie2
antique-book-lover shop

Names

Proper nouns or other proper terms, as well as foreign terms and borrowings, are preceded by the name marker tu1 and may be treated structurally as compound words. Within a name, individual syllables may or may not have any semantic value; they could be purely phonetic.

tu1 txa1-li2 da1-uin2
Charles Darwin

a1 tu1 bob2 nguig3 ueg1 tu1 pa1-li2.
SUBJ NAME Bob go to NAME Paris
Bob goes to Paris.

dein3 a1 oid2 tu1 pa1-li5.
exist SUBJ friend NAME Parisian
There is (It is) my Parisian friend.

a1 oid2 dlaim3 tu1 pa1-li4.
SUBJ friend speak NAME Paris.ADV
The friend speaks like a Parisian (speaks Paris-like).

If preferred, the foreign word or phrase may be used in its native form.

nguig3 ueg1 tu1 Paris.
go to NAME Paris
(I) go to Paris.

The name marker may precede an entire noun phrase.

tu1 tseg2 saub1 dzeit5 txa2
NAME book of magic rite
The Book of Magical Rites

The name marker is useful for borrowing from other languages.

tu1 si1-pa1-get1-ti2
spaghetti

a1 oid2 dau3 o1 tu1 ka1-la1-te2.
SUBJ friend practice OBJ NAME karate
A friend practices karate.

a1 oid2 tu1 ka1-la1-te3.
SUBJ friend NAME karate.VERB
A friend 'karates' (does karate).

Quotations

Direct quotations are set off by dak4 (quotingly) and jak4 (unquotingly).

gep3 o1 dak4 "a1 dlaing2 glaub3 puip5" (jak4).
say OBJ QUOTE "SUBJ grape taste good" (UNQUOTE)
(I) say, "The grapes taste good."

a1 dak4 "djiem2" (jak4) txuid3 klek1 ngiod2.
SUBJ QUOTE silence (UNQUOTE) be-music according-to me
The "silence" is music to me.

dak4/jak4 may be used in conjunction with the name marker.

fuim3 o1 tu1 dak4 "fliop4 nguig3 gloip1 aud2" (jak4).
see OBJ NAME QUOTE "PAST go with wind" (UNQUOTE)
(I) am seeing "Gone with the Wind."

Indirect quotations do not use dak4/jak4.

gep3 ved1 a1 dlaing2 glaub3 puip5.
say that SUBJ grape taste good
(I) say that the grapes taste good.

Questions

The question marker mo1 ends an interrogative phrase.

a1 tu1 bob2 nguig3 mo1?
SUBJ NAME Bob go QUES
Is Bob going?

a1 diop2 nguig3 mo1?
SUBJ who go QUES
Who is going?

Exclamations

Exclamatory phrases may be ended with a strengthening exclamatory marker mak1 or a softening exclamatory marker lei1.

puip5! Good!

puip5 mak1! Good! (strong)

puip5 lei1! Good! (soft)

Head-first Relative Clauses

There are two particles that can mark the beginning of a 'head-first' relative clause, djib1 (restrictive) and gop1 (non-restrictive). Restrictive clauses give information about the head which is inherent, while non-restrictive clauses give information about the head which is incidental. In English, we often distinguish these two by putting a comma (for non-restrictive) or not (for restrictive). For concision, a 'resumptive pronoun' may be used to refer to the head.

fuim3 o1 oid2 djib1 a1 kliok2 guk3 o1 mion2.
see OBJ friend RESTRICT SUBJ you know OBJ he/she
"(I) see the friend + you know him/her."
(I) see the friend whom you know.

dein3 a1 pa1-li2 djib1 a1 ngiod2 nguig3 ueg1 pot2.
exist SUBJ Paris RESTRICT SUBJ I go to it
"There is / It is Paris + I go to it."
It is Paris to where I am going.

The resumptive pronoun may be dropped.

fuim3 o1 oid2 djib1 a1 kliok2 guk3.
see OBJ friend RESTRICT SUBJ you know
(I) see the friend whom you know.

dein3 a1 pa1-li2 djib1 a1 ngiod2 nguig3.
exist SUBJ Paris RESTRICT SUBJ I go
It is Paris to where I am going.

Here are examples of non-restrictive clauses:

a1 ngiod2 viek4 fuim3 o1 oid2 gob1 a1 ngiod2 flu4 fuim3.
SUBJ I today see OBJ friend NON-RESTRICT SUBJ I yesterday see
I see the friend today, whom I saw yesterday (by the way).

fuim3 o1 oid2 gob1 duob4 tug3 o1 dli2.
see OBJ friend NON-RESTRICT CAUS walk OBJ dog
(I) see the friend, who is walking the dog.

Head-last Relative Clauses

A head-last relative clause has the modifying clause before the head (reverse of English). There are two particles that can mark the ending of a 'head-last' relative clause, vied1 (restrictive) and miem1 (non-restrictive).

a1 kliok2 guk3 vied1 o1 oid2 fuim3.
SUBJ you know RESTRICT OBJ friend see
(I) see the friend whom you know.

o1 dli2 duob4 tug3 miem1 o1 oid2 fuim3.
OBJ dog CAUS walk NON-RESTRICT OBJ friend see
(I) see the friend, who is walking the dog.

Topicalization

A common sentence pattern is to have the topic, a word or phrase other than the subject, separate from a comment. The topic marker is za1.

za1 ban2, a1 gleib2 ploi4 mia3.
TOPIC food, SUBJ we tomorrow eat
About the food, we will eat it tomorrow.

a1 gleib2 ploi4 mia3, za1 ban2.
SUBJ we tomorrow eat, TOPIC food
About the food, we will eat it tomorrow.

za1 glu5 kiu2, dein3 gain4.
TOPIC big bird, exist many.ADV
About big birds, there are many of them.

Nominalizer: "-ing, what"

The marker sup1 nominalizes the verb.

buang3 a1 sup1 bli3 o1 dzik5 plak2.
be-difficult SUBJ NOM learn OBJ foreign language
Learning a foreign language is difficult.

vlu3 u1 plua2 a1 sup1 vlie3 a1 mion2.
be COMPL piano SUBJ NOM want SUBJ he/she
What he/she wants is a piano.

Appositives

An appositive is a noun that refers to another noun with no preposition or conjunction joining them.

a1 tu1 ma1-li2, meb1-vliang1-txiog2, vliang3 o1 koid2.
SUBJ NAME Mary, life-study-person, study OBJ plant
Mary, a biologist, studies plants.

Numerals

Numerals are consistently and regularly formed. Twenty is 'two-ten'. Forty is 'four-ten'. Fourteen is 'ten-four'. Thirty-four is 'three-ten-four'. Numerals are compound words.

xua1-buim1-moi1-nau1-plaig1-txod1-klub1-pliak1-bliut1-plau1-gi5
one billion nine million twenty-eight thousand four hundred seven
1,009,028,407

Fractions are formed using the preposition tsoin1 ('out of'):

gliag1-tsoin1-bliut5
three out of four
three quarters

vek1 is used for decimals.

plaig1-txod1-bliut1-vek1-nuin1-gi5
twenty-four point six seven
24.67

Ordinals are formed by the adverb mun4 ('by order'):

mun4 gi1-txod1-gliag5
ORDER seven-ten-three
73rd

Telling Time

The verb for telling time is xaung3. The 24-hour clock is used. 'January', 'February', 'March', and so forth are 'xua5 voi2' (one month), 'plaig5 voi2' (two months), 'gliag5 voi2' (three months), and so forth. The weekdays 'Monday', 'Tuesday', 'Wednesday', 'Thursday', 'Friday', 'Saturday', and 'Sunday' are 'xua5 txua2' (one weekday), 'plaig5 txua2' (two weekdays), 'gliag5 txua2' (three weekdays), 'bliut5 txua2' (four weekdays), 'dzig5 txua2' (five weekdays), 'nuin5 txua2' (six weekdays), and 'gi5 txua2' (seven weekdays) respectively.

xaung3 a1 ten2 mo1?
time.VERB SUBJ what QUES
What is the time?

za1 vlop2, xaung3 a1 ten5 jien2 (ten5 paing2) mo1?
TOPIC now, time.VERB SUBJ what hour (what minute) QUES
(As of now) what is the hour (and minute)?

xaung3 a1 moi5 jien2, gliag1-txod1-nuin5 paing2.
time.VERB SUBJ nine hour, three-ten-six minute
(xaung3 a1 09:36.)
The time is 09:36.

xaung3 a1 txod1-bliut5 jien2, gi5 paing2.
time.VERB SUBJ ten-four hour, seven minute
(xaung3 a1 14:07.)
The time is 14:07.

xaung3 a1 ten5 men2, ten5 voi2, ten5 mong2 mo1?
time.VERB SUBJ what year, what month, what day QUES
What is the year, month, day?

xaung3 a1 plaig1-pliak1-plaig1-txod1-klub5 men2, nuin5 voi2, txod1-nuin5 mong2,
dzig5 txua2, txod1-gi5 jien2, bliut1-txod1-dzig5 paing2.

time.VERB SUBJ two-thousand-two-ten-eight year, six month, ten-six day, five weekday, ten-seven hour, four-ten-five minute
(xaung3 a1 2028.06.16, 5 txua2, 17:45.)
The date/time is the year 2028, June 16, Friday, 17:45.

The verb for time duration is ngieg3.

za1 nguot2, ngieg3 a1 ten2 mo1?
TOPIC trip, duration.VERB SUBJ what QUES
About the trip, how long is it? (What is the duration of the trip?)

za1 nguot2, ngieg3 a1 plaig5 voi2; xaung3 a1 xua5 voi2, dzig5 mong2, plog1 gliag5 voi2, dzig5 mong2.
TOPIC trip, duration.VERB SUBJ two month; time.VERB SUBJ one month, five day, until three month, five day
(za1 nguot2, ngieg3 a1 2 voi2; xaung3 a1 01.05 plog1 03.05.)
The trip lasts two months; it is from January 5th until March 5th.

za1 nguot2, ngieg3 a1 bliut5 tloi2, xaung4 tsoin1 xua5 txua2 plog1 bliut5 txua2.
TOPIC trip, duration.VERB SUBJ four day, time.ADV from one weekday until four weekday
The trip lasts four days from Monday until Thursday.

Weather

za1 ngab2, ten3 mo1?
TOPIC weather, what.VERB QUES
What is the weather like?

sui3.
It is raining.

dued3.
It is sunny.

sid3.
It is cloudy.

lid3.
It is snowing.

Greetings

Any cheerful term may be used for both salutations and partings.

fuek3! Peace!

bien3! Hope!

Pronouns

personsingularplural
1stngiod2dzuam2
1st & 2nd_gleib2
2ndkliok2kau2
3rd, biologicalmion2niad2
3rd, non-biologicalpot2dzub2

Vocabulary

[KEY: aj = adjective, av = adverb, cj = conjunction, n = noun, num = numeral, pn = pronoun, pr = preposition, pt = particle]

pn I, me; my ngiod2; ngiod5
pn we, us (inclusive "with you"); our gleib2; gleib5
pn we, us (exclusive "without you"); our dzuam2; dzuam5
pn you (singular); your kliok2; kliok5
pn you (plural); your kau2; kau5
pn he, she, him, her; his, her (biological) mion2; mion5
pn one (indefinite persons or biologicals); one's ngom2; ngom5
pn they (biological); their niad2; niad5
pn it; its (non-biological) pot2; pot5
pn they (non-biological); their dzub2; dzub5

pt subject marker a1
pt direct object (accusative) marker o1
pt complement marker u1
pt letteral marker ka1
pt imperative (command) marker au1
pt polite request marker ei1
pt question marker mo1
pt newly introduced information marker ton1
pt previously introduced information marker kim1
pt name marker tu1
pt nominalizer sup1
pt topic marker za1
pt strengthening exclamatory marker mak1
pt softening exclamatory marker lei1
pr about (pertaining to; on the topic of) dluim1
pr above, over jing1
pr according to klek1
pr across (at / to the other side of) plei1
pr after (later than; in the future of) bog1
pr around, encircling, surrounding bei1
pr as jiot1
pr as for zauk1
pr at (in the same location as) xiu1
pr because of, due to ngie1
pr before, in front of, ahead of (spatially) tsieb1
pr before, prior to, earlier than uit1
pr behind, in back of, to the rear of bla1
pr between, among, amidst, inter- txia1
pr beyond, farther than, exceeding dzio1
pr by means of, via, per, with (using; through instrumentality of) ak1
pr during iong1
pr except for, besides, apart from, other than, excluding om1
pr for (to benefit; destined for; for the purpose of) uog1
pr for (in exchange for) ap1
pr from, out of, away from tsoin1
pr in (located inside of) zuak1
pr instead of, rather than ien1
pr like, similar to kuit1
pr near, close to tseb1
pr of (owned by; belonging to; associated with; = genitive) saub1
pr of (containing the measured quantity: "two liters of water") ki1
pr on (resting on; touching the top or other surface of) iop1
pr outside of, exterior to tliud1
pr/cj than, compared to xuem1
pr through uip1
pr to, towards, at (moving toward) ueg1
pr under, below, beneath hium1
pr until plog1
pr with (accompanied by) gloip1
pr without, with no ..., lacking flueng1
v be (intransitive predicative copula) vlu3
v exist dein3
v become (begin to be; acquire the quality...) aum3
v cause (induce something to be/happen) eid3
v make, render (impart quality X to Y; e.g. "I make you happy") gling3
v do, perform, engage in (specified activity) iad3
v have (possess / be furnished with) hiap3
aux v pres can (is/are able to ...) nug3
aux v pres should, ought to (is/are expected/advised to ...) flaim3
aj/pn this (demonstrative) nua5, nua2
aj/pn that (demonstrative) ik5, ik2
aj/pn that yonder (demonstrative) pliang5, pliang2
cj so, then, therefore djup1
cj aka (also known as) taup1
cj and, plus iam1
cj but, however eim1
cj if (on condition that...; supposing that...) tsai1
cj or dzuong1
cj that (e.g. "I know that you are right") ved1
pt that, who/which/where/when [head-first restrictive clause marker] (e.g. "I saw the doctor that/who had lunch with you.") djib1
pt who/which/where/when [head-first non-restrictive clause marker] (e.g. "I saw a girl, who wore a red dress.") gop1
pt that, who/which/where/when [head-last restrictive clause marker] vied1
pt who/which/where/when [head-last non-restrictive clause marker] miem1
av also, additionally, too kuo4
av apart, separately nieg4
av maybe, perhaps, possibly an4
av not, no uod4
av yes suik4
av only, solely, exclusively glue4
av together puo4
av how? (in what manner?) xoid4
av how much/many? zuim4
pn what? ten2
av when? (at what time?) zian4
av where? (at/to what place?) glod4
pn, aj which? moim2, moim5
pn who? diop2
av why? (for what reason?) flaib4
aj any (no particular one of) tleg5
aj all xuag5
aj every, each uin5
n dwarf txuek2
n elf nuing2
n person, human being txiog2
n baby, infant vlai2
n child vie2
n boy ho2
n girl ang2
n man (adult male person) og2
n woman (adult female person) maun2
n family ud2
n father txuak2
n mother ze2
n marriage (spousal relationship) nie2
n husband lua2
n wife dzat2
n son su2
n daughter mie2
n brother maing2
n sister tiod2
n chief, leader txue2
n king tsiun2
n queen tiop2
n president siang2
n prime minister pliu2
n dictator, tyrant aim2
n master, lord ngiu2
n slave guo2
n soldier bua2
n ambassador at2
n member (of group/organization) zei2
n friend oid2
n enemy muib2
n Mr., Ms., Miss, Mrs. gat2
n Mister, Mr. flai2
n Ms., Miss/Mrs. xuo2
n club, society (voluntary association re: a common interest) zib2
n committee (group appointed to do a task) fluo2
n community (individuals sharing space / culture) dzui2
n culture (the customs and beliefs of a people) uong2
n individual (one considered separately from one's species) dui2
n people (a people), folk, the members of an ethnic group / nation zo2
n public, populace, the people (as in People's Republic) sau2
n race (group of people with similar characteristics) jum2
n team, crew, squad hie2
n abdomen dze2
n anus ab2
n arm (shoulder to hand) kiom2
n back (dorsal area) dzue2
n beard gluib2
n blood aup2
n body iap2
n bone flot2
n brain djuog2
n breast, mammary ieng2
n buttock ad2
n cheek (side of face below eye) uam2
n chest (upper front of torso) bo2
n chin aung2
n ear uen2
n egg bio2
n eye hui2
n face it2
n feather jua2
n feces, dung, excrement gion2
n fetus (foetus), embryo ueb2
n finger gluab2
n fist ion2
n foot (on which something stands) ta2
n forehead dzoi2
n gene luo2
n hair (a strand of fibrous material growing from the body) mau2
n hair (the hairs atop one's head thought of as a collective entity) uot2
n hand zu2
n head zab2
n heart (coronary muscle) txiok2
n heel kuik2
n hip tsue2
n horn (bone-like growth from animal's head) uop2
n intestines, gut(s), viscera dlie2
n iris (of eye) iut2
n kidney nio2
n knee nuak2
n leg zap2
n lip glieng2
n liver uing2
n lung uad2
n meat, flesh feig2
n mouth uob2
n muscle bluop2
n nail (fingernail) dlua2
n navel hau2
n neck up2
n nerve tlong2
n nose kab2
n organ (of body) iot2
n palm (of hand) eib2
n penis vluo2
n shell dlia2
n shoulder so2
n skeleton plu2
n skin ong2
n spine, backbone tlo2
n stomach tsi2
n sweat, perspiration bai2
n tail dluen2
n tear(drop(s)) kloing2
n testicle dieg2
n throat iup2
n thumb ziu2
n toe tleib2
n tongue (body-part) jau2
n tooth fueg2
n urine djuing2
n vagina tsie2
n vein, blood vessel im2
n waist djuo2
n wing (of bird etc.) iud2
n wound luon2
n wrist ub2
n berry (small pulpy fruit) dio2
n bud (of flower/leaf) djem2
n flower blok2
n fruit fui2
n leaf fliom2
n nut (hard-shelled fruit/seed with separable shell and kernel) xad2
n pod (seed pod) vleig2
n root (of a plant) ian2
n seed ueng2
n sprout (young shoot of plant) pluag2
aj alive plaing5
aj dead ngua5
n birth vo2
n mature, adult uat2
aj healthy zua5
n disease, illness, sickness dzod2
aj fat, obese, plump klauk5
n sex, gender jia2
aj female xuon5
aj male uab5
aj neuter (neither male nor female) iab5
n sense (ability to perceive a given kind of stimuli) nein2
n pain ip2
n pleasure zeim2
aj tired, weary iep5
aj refreshed, zesty, perky iob5
v sleep pling3
aj awake guik5
n fever duat2
v bite glia3
v breathe hieb3
v catch (stop the motion of and seize in the hands) xei3
v climb ngued3
v copulate, have sex (with) bliong3
v crawl ja3
v cry out, shout, yell uem3
v cry, weep txiek3
v dance tui3
v die fue3
v drink fliun3
v drown (die/kill via immersion) djie3
v eat mia3
v feed tlaub3
v feel (perceive with the tactile sense) fua3
v gesture iub3
v hold, grasp uan3
v hunt, pursue (with intent to capture and/or devour) dzuad3
v jump, leap uag3
v kick jiug3
v kill aub3
v kiss glig3
v laugh zeing3
v lie (recline horizontally) oik3
v live (be alive) oing3
v run diu3
v shave piu3
v sit (be in a sitting position) iem3
v smile iag3
v sneeze djin3
v spit bliok3
v squat xuop3
v stand ok3
v swallow zai3
v swim ngoi3
v taste (perceive the flavor of) txuo3
v throw, toss do3
v touch puang3
v vomit xiup3
v walk tug3
v wrestle eig3
n animal (non-vegetable creature) xien2
n ant (insect of family Formicidae) ham2
n bear (animal of Ursidae family) ot2
n bee (member of genus Apis) dzua2
n bird (egg-laying feathered animal with wings) kiu2
n butterfly ve2
n cat (Felis catus) ob2
n chicken huod2
n cockroach (insect of order Blattaria) bue2
n cow/bull, cattle (bovine animal of either sex) fla2
n deer (animal of family Cervidae) fuong2
n dog (Canis familiaris) dli2
n donkey, ass (Equus asinus) fe2
n dragon (winged serpent with crested head and large claws) eip2
n fish txain2
n fly (small winged insect) dling2
n fox (member of genus Vulpes) ied2
n frog (web-footed tailless leaping amphibian) blue2
n goat (animal of genus Capra) tliong2
n grasshopper nge2
n horse (Equus caballus) eit2
n insect in2
n lion (Felis leo) nag2
n lizard nged2
n lobster tuid2
n mammal od2
n mantis (insect of order Manteodea) xoik2
n monkey, small primate voig2
n mosquito dlo2
n mouse tluob2
n pig, swine (omnivorous mammal of family Suidae) eg2
n rabbit (animal of family Leporidae) hiu2
n reptile ut2
n sheep (Ovis aries) pia2
n snake, serpent (reptile of suborder Serpentes or Ophidia) djoi2
n spider, arachnid ple2
n squirrel (rodent of family Sciuridae) oim2
n tiger (Felis tigris) iat2
n turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) vluat2
n turtle (reptile of order Testudinata) plueg2
n virus aing2
n whale (large marine mammal of order Cetacea) piad2
n wolf (Canis lupus) joi2
n worm flo2
n apple (tree/fruit of genus Malus) xag2
n bamboo (plant/stem of genera Bambusa / Arundinaria / Dendrocalamus) aik2
n banana (plant/fruit of genus Musa) bum2
n bean (lima/snap/etc.: plant/seed of genus Phaseolus or similar) goit2
n cabbage (plant/leaves of sp. Brassica oleracea capitata) glaung2
n carrot (plant/root of sp. Daucus carota sativus) pei2
n coffee (plant/seeds of sp. Coffea arabica) toig2
n cork (tree/elastic tissue of sp. Quercus suber) koit2
n corn, maize (plant/seeds of sp. Zea mays) txeip2
n cotton (plant/fibers of genus Gossypium) tlaung2
n cucumber (Cucumis sativus) txe2
n date (tree/fruit of sp. Phoenix dactylifera) huik2
n fig (tree/fruit of genus Ficus) dzuo2
n flax (Linum usitatissimum) dua2
n garlic (herb of sp. Allium sativum) djam2
n ginger (plant/rhizome of genus Zingiber) kluk2
n ginseng (plant/root of genus Panax) kuim2
n gourd (plant/hard-rinded fruit of genera Lagenaria & Cucurbita) vue2
n grape (plant/fruit of genus Vitis) dlaing2
n grass (monocotyledonous plant of family Gramineae) nu2
n hemp, marijuana (plant/material of sp. Cannabis sativa) eng2
n kelp (seaweed of orders Laminariales and Fucales) flid2
n lentil (plant/seeds of sp. Lens culinaris) gau
n lettuce (plant/leaves of genus Lactuca) flog2
n mandarin, tangerine (tree/fruit of sp. Citrus reticulata) hia2
n mint (plant of family Labiatae) viu2
n mushroom (a complex aerial fleshy fruiting body of a fungus) doi2
n mustard (plant of sp. Brassica hirta / B. nigra / B. juncea) tsik2
n oak (tree of genus Quercus) nieng2
n oat (plant/seed of genus Avena) tsau2
n olive (tree/fruit of sp. Olea europaea) gliot2
n onion (plant/bulb of sp. Allium sepa) txoi2
n orange (tree/fruit of Citrus sinensis / related spp.) xiud2
n pea (plant/seed of sp. Pisum sativum) fuom2
n peanut (plant/seed/pod of sp. Arachis hypogaea) tuem2
n pepper (hot/sweet/bell pepper -- plant/pod of genus Capsicum) xuak2
n pepper (black -- plant/seed of sp. Piper nigrum) maim2
n pine (coniferous tree of genus Pinus) tsuo2
n plum (certain trees/fruits of genus Prunus) ngu2
n potato (plant/tuber of sp. Solanum tuberosum) iek2
n rice (plant/seed of sp. Oryza sativa) em2
n rose (plant/flower of genus Rosa) kuap2
n safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) fun2
n sesame (plant/seed of genus Sesamum) dlue2
n soya, soybean (plant/seed of sp. Glycine max) um2
n spinach (plant/leaves of sp. Spinacia oleracea) blai2
n squash, melon (plant/fruit of genus Cucurbita grown for edible fruit) uang2
n sunflower (plant/bloom of sp. Helianthus annuus) fuang2
n tea (plant/leaves of sp. Camellia sinensis) blim2
n tobacco (plant/leaves of sp. Nicotiana tabacum) ieg2
n tomato (plant/berry of genus Lycopersicon) klian2
n wheat (plant/seed of sp. Triticum aestivum) to2
n bush, shrub huo2
n garden dza
n grain(s), cereal crop(s) and their seed(s) de2
v harvest, reap en3
n life (philosophical, daily living) ziug
n life (biological) meb
n plant (a vegetable life-form) koid2
n tree bleig2
n bay (small body of water offset from lake or sea) nui2
n beach, shore po2
n cave tluing2
n cliff txuam2
n cloud sid2
n desert kliap2
n earth (terra firma contrasted with sea and heaven) hiud2
n earthquake blu2
n eclipse et2
n field (unbroken expanse of land) id2
n flood, deluge ed2
n fog la2
n forest tluip2
n hail iang2
n hill (smaller than a mountain) maug2
n island liek2
n lake dloik2
n land pek2
n lightning iet2
n moon (natural satellite of a planet) pueb2
n mountain uk2
n nature (that which occurs spontaneously; the non-artificial world) vau2
n planet ziom2
n rain sui2
n rainbow jong2
n river faig2
n sea, ocean duam2
n sky bluo2
n snow lid2
n star haib2
n storm da2
n sun dued2
n swamp, marsh gie2
n thunder mian2
n tide tliom2
n tornado puog2
n universe, cosmos tsui2
n valley vlio2
n volcano vlua2
n weather ngab2
n wind aud2
n world aib2
n arrow (sharp-tipped shaft shot from a bow) fai2
n axe tled2
n balloon ziut2
n bar, rod ep2
n barrel, cask puek2
n basket ziuk2
n bed glei2
n bell buod2
n blade glua2
n blanket (large piece of soft material used as a cover) iom2
n board veid2
n bomb fluib2
n bottle dzoit2
n bow (for arrows) dluig2
n bowl (deep round dish) jai2
n box (rigid rectangular receptacle) fluin2
n brake hoi2
n brick (hard clay block) tlud2
n broom djon2
n brush vlau2
n bucket, pail gue2
n bullet gai2
n button (on a shirt etc.) tsieng2
n cage niob2
n can (presealed metal container) {British: tin} flui2
n candle ait2
n cannon uek2
n chain (connected series of rings or links) kob2
n chair (furniture for one person to sit on) pui2
n cigarette pluo2
n clock iung2
n club, cudgel txau2
n coin fab2
n comb dzuik2
n computer (electronic instruction-obeying information-handler) uid2
n container ek2
n cord, cable (thicker than wire) duog2
n cover (thing put onto or extended over something else) klaum2
n cup (small bowl with handle) ngue2
n curtain sue2
n dial (circle marked with numbers/symbols) fio2
n dish (any shallow concave container) niog2
n doll, effigy klied2
n dome (anything shaped like an upside-down bowl) nguo2
n drain (device that removes unwanted liquid) vi2
n drill ngiap2
n drum (hollow musical instrument beaten with sticks or hands) klio2
n envelope (folded paper covering a letter) txie2
n fan (device to create air current) flueg2
n fence (outdoor barrier supported by posts) niab2
n file (tool for abrading) sei2
n flag, banner fiod2
n fork (instrument with >=2 prongs for picking up something) gli2
n frame (structure supporting or surrounding something) hoik2
n furniture xiet2
n gear (toothed wheel) pab2
n guitar (stringed instrument played with the fingers) bliem2
n gun (ballistic weapon) xio2
n hammer oit2
n handle (part of tool by which it is held) fiung2
n hinge tlui2
n hook fip2
n horn (makes noise when blown) dzuok2
n hourglass djua2
n jar, jug (big wide-mouthed bottle) oib2
n key (metal device for operating lock) kia2
n knife djui2
n knob lu2
n ladder uom2
n lamp auk2
n lens koi2
n lever ieb2
n lock (device for securing doors) bok2
n machine (device with moving parts) ngoib2
n match (little fire-stick) txub2
n microscope tua2
n mirror tlai2
n motor, engine fuag2
n nail (pointy fastener) juk2
n needle zaug2
n net van2
n oven txoik2
n package, packet, parcel glip2
n paddle, oar (stick with broad end) veb2
n pan (broad shallow cooking dish) ngo2
n patch (a piece used to cover/repair a flaw) aug2
n pedal eik2
n pen (writing tool that uses ink) zue2
n pencil, crayon (writing tool that uses semi-solid substance) dab2
n piano plua2
n pillow, cushion vui2
n pipe (a hard tube for transporting liquid) kui2
n plate (shallow dish, usually round) jeim2
n plow (plough) daung2
n pocket kut2
n pole, stick (long bar) klui2
n post (vertical pole anchored in ground) xut2
n pot (deep round vessel) gla2
n pulley vat2
n pump vloi2
n rack (framework of bars for storage) pied2
n radio apparatus, wireless set ing2
n rail (usually horizontal bar for restraining/supporting things) djaub2
n rake ngau2
n razor tlod2
n rope flie2
n rug, mat nuab2
n sack, bag hok2
n sail maip2
n saw (tool) vlo2
n scale (device to measure weight) kam2
n scissors vlei2
n screen, mesh ngai2
n screw (threaded fastener) kluot2
n sign (board with public notice written on it) vlung2
n shelf xuim2
n shield (a protective implement) feik2
n shovel uak2
n spear, lance mei2
n sponge (real/synthetic corpse of animal of phylum Porifera) plik2
n spool, reel (cylinder onto which something is wound) txuit2
n spoon vliu2
n spring (metal helix) blom2
n staple (fastener) ium2
n strap bie2
n string (thicker than thread and thinner than rope) dziup2
n stylus ming2
n sword xau2
n syringe pla2
n table (piece of furniture with flat top) dluam2
n telephone eing2
n telescope aut2
n television set iod2
n toilet, water closet op2
n tool, utensil, implement jie2
n tongs am2
n towel plam2
n toy, plaything lap2
n trap pait2
n tray (shallow rectangular dish) tep2
n umbrella pluim2
n valve (flow-controller) xieb2
n weapon vluok2
n wheel dloi2
n wire (long thread-like piece of metal) zuop2
n wrench {British: spanner} tsut2
n apron on2
n belt juo2
n coat (heavy outer garment with sleeves) pliok2
n collar vuag2
n eyeglasses boing2
n garment (item of clothing) iun2
n glove nuo2
n harness hue2
n hat, cap uet2
n helmet nad2
n jacket (a short and/or lightweight coat) tuk2
n necktie kliek2
n pants, trousers ngik2
n shirt xin2
n shorts, trunks (trousers extending no lower than knees) suang2
n shoe uok2
n skirt, kilt, dress (any torso-garment open at the bottom) iog2
n sock, hose, stocking huep2
n uniform (special garments worn by members of a group) nue2
n veil tie2
n building, edifice (structure with walls and roof) fluong2
n attic, garret jeit2
n ceiling mit2
n cellar, basement siu2
n chimney suim2
n door gued2
n elevator {British: lift} blaug2
n fireplace, hearth tlau2
n floor (bottom of room) xen2
n hall nguim2
n roof ti2
n room, chamber fia2
n stair(s) zuog2
n throne djuak2
n wall duang2
n window si2
n church (building or institution of public worship) feim2
n factory uep2
n hospital bain2
n hotel, inn dlueg2
n house (a free-standing man-made dwelling-building) kli2
n library keig2
n mill (place where raw materials are processed) pluom2
n prison, jail tlei2
n school tun2
n store, shop, boutique lie2
n tavern, bar, pub va2
n theater ung2
n university puim2
n bridge ig2
n farm txuod2
n park (public outdoor area) zau2
n market (place where goods are bought/sold/traded) siun2
n tower txaip2
n agency, bureau aig2
n army vueng2
n authority (the right/power to command) dzap2
n campaign (for political office) zuing2
n constitution (charter of an organization) bab2
v control jeb3
n court (of law) bluit2
n crime pliong2
v elect (select by voting) dzug2
aj free (at liberty) dloing5
n government flio2
aj independent dzai5
aj international fluip5
n jury loing2
n law (a rule enforced by a government) miob2
aj military heg5
n nation, state (political entity) piok2
v obey geg3
aj official (issued with authority) gu5
v organize (bring X's together to perform a task) blei3
n parliament, congress (legislative body of elected officers) poing2
n party (political), sect (religious) viong2
v permit, allow, let djei3
n police (organization to enforce laws) tsei2
n politics vliab2
v prohibit, forbid, contra-permit meit3
n province (of Canada etc.), prefecture, state (of USA etc.) tliuk2
v resign zoi3
n rule, regulation tsaib2
n submission, surrender tlio2
n tax vluot2
n trial (in court) fub2
v unite klu3
v vote iuk3
n war kliab2
v accept (willingly receive) fie3
n account (record of money received/paid/owed) flia2
n bank (monetary institution) huen2
n bill, invoice (statement of money owed) txaum2
v borrow bid3
n business, commerce djiot2
v buy, purchase plap3
aj cheap, inexpensive xet5
n check (written order directing a bank to pay from an account) floib2
n company (a business organization), firm tliop2
n contract (agreement-document) juim2
n credit (permission to borrow money) kua2
n debt, obligation to pay miu2
v exchange, trade, swap ngei3
aj expensive, costly iug5
aj frugal, thrifty txaup5
aj generous, charitable dje5
vt get, acquire, gain, obtain gied3
v give djab3
n insurance (protective contractual arrangement) xaib2
v invest xiug3
n job, employment dloim2
v keep, retain, go on having (e.g. "you should keep this book") bliod3
v lack (be without) fu3
v lend xui3
vt lose (cease having; contra-acquire) dzie3
n merchandise, goods, wares dliu2
n money tau2
v offer (present for acceptance or rejection) vloib3
v own (possess according to law or custom) uap3
v pay vlaut3
aj poor, impoverished pi5
n price, cost txap2
aj private (contra-public) txo5
n prize, award liut2
n profit, gain tiom2
v provide, supply, furnish tle3
aj public (available to most or all persons) kluo5
v punish tlia3
v receive vliap3
v reject, refuse (contra-accept) lon3
n responsibility, liability, accountability dluad2
v reward deim3
aj rich, wealthy klud5
v sell plue3
v steal (take in a criminal way) bliam3
n store, cache, reserve, reservoir gong2
v take (in the sense of E-o "preni", G "nehmen", Sp "tomar") ziup3
n ticket, coupon txien2
n value (the quality of being useful and/or desirable), worth fiu2
n angel, fairy (supernatural flying humanoid) fei2
v bless (wish good upon) gliut3
v curse, damn (wish evil upon) dlat3
n ghost (manifestation of dead person's soul) oig2
n god, diety piot2
n heaven, celestial realm, Valhala etc. tliun2
n hell, Hades bliu2
aj holy, sacred uim5
n magic, sorcery dzeit2
v pray (communicate with god(s)) puok3
n priest, clergyman dzei2
n religion kliop2
n revelation, mystical vision djag2
n ritual, rite, ceremony txa2
n soul, spirit (believed to outlive the body) xu2
v admire ngain3
aj alert djuang5
aj angry txei5
v approve (of) lied3
n art (creative craft; productive use of talent) xam2
n attention (active perception) heng2
n behavior, conduct tuam2
v believe (accept as true) xia3
v blame vluip3
aj boring, tedious txu5
v calculate, reckon biang3
n care, concern (about someone / something) dlui2
n caution, prudence, carefulness bi2
v celebrate, rejoice bop3
v choose, pick (out), select one of many possibilities guag3
n comfort (freedom from pain and/or worry) glio2
v compare zub3
v consider nuob3
aj conscious, aware biu5
n courage, bravery bluok2
aj dear, precious, cherished blaib5
v decide hai3
n disappointment vliep2
v distinguish, differentiate, tell one from another kueb3
n destiny kluong2
v doubt dle3
n dream txi2
n embarrassment glueg2
n enthusiasm, zeal txeid2
n eternity zeg2
v expect, anticipate (believe that X will come/happen) hauk3
v experience (consciously live through an event) nai3
v favor, prefer lio3
v fear (be afraid of) ziub3
v feel (experience an emotion/sentiment) dlig3
aj foolish dluo5
v forget (contra-remember) ge3
v forgive, pardon gei3
aj foreign dzik5
aj funny, comical jiub5
aj grateful, thankful ued5
aj greedy txaing5
v guard, monitor, watch over zeit3
v guess, conjecture pio3
v guide, lead dlap3
aj guilty, blame-worthy tue5
n habit, custom, routine practice oin2
aj happy bong5
v hate tuo3
v hope bien3
aj humble, modest bieg5
n idea, concept (thought-bundle) hub2
v imagine hod3
aj important vio5
aj innocent, contra-guilty jaib5
aj insane, crazy, mad vlog5
aj intelligent vliog5
v intend, mean to, do deliberately, have as a purpose lieg3
n interest (desire to pay attention to something), fascination xeing2
v invent (plan something which has never been made before) kiob3
n jealousy, envy mu2
v judge (compare something to criteria), form an opinion about tlua3
v know guk3
n knowledge aun2
v learn bli3
v like, enjoy (derive pleasure from) niu3
n logic (formalized process of reasoning) klin2
aj lonely (feeling undesirable solitude) plui5
v love glie3
aj loyal ploid5
n mercy tliap2
n mind siab2
n mystery ug2
n neglect, negligence, apathy siong2
aj nice, kind, affable bit5
v notice, observe dloid3
n opinion duek2
n patience uib2
n peace (freedom from fighting or turmoil) fuek2
v perceive, detect xoi3
v pity, feel compassion toward, feel sorry for tio3
n plan, design oip2
n play (performed by actors on stage), drama un2
v pretend, act, feign sia3
n pride (proudness; self-respect) ag2
n reason, explanation, justification, rationale nei2
n reasoning, rational thought bu2
v recognize xud3
v regret sua3
v remember djau3
v respect, venerate, esteem txai3
n revenge, vengeance, retribution, getting even mui2
aj sad, unhappy, melancholy lau5
n satisfaction djap2
v seek, search (for), look for nuok3
v seem, appear to be, give the impression of loin3
aj serious, earnest, grave gin5
n shame mueg2
v study vliang3
aj stupid tli5
n subject, topic of discussion bait2
v suppose, presume gluo3
v surprise, startle tliung3
n talent, skill, knack uon2
v teach djaing3
v tempt soi3
n theory tloim2
v think huim3
v trust bia3
v understand, comprehend dzot3
v want, wish, desire vlie3
n whim, caprice dziu2
aj wise nguom5
n worry, anxiety puep2
n address (postal co-ordinates) klaim2
v admit, confess di3
n advertisement tuag2
n advice vlia2
n alphabet djiug2
v announce, proclaim jio3
n answer, reply to a question or argument miop2
n article, essay (piece of text about one topic) dlub2
v ask, inquire blaud3
n book tseg2
v call, summon tla3
n chapter (main division of book) piat2
n chart, diagram lai2
n claim, assertion (statement of unknown accuracy) fok2
n code (cryptographic system) hiot2
n command, order, directive pue2
n communication (exchange of information) dliob2
n consonant (non-vowel) tsia2
v criticize dzieg3
v deny (say that X is not true) zoip3
v describe fliud3
n dictionary duo2
v discuss, talk about peim3
n document boi2
v emphasize, accentuate, stress zia3
n fact (undisputed datum) toik2
n fiction iok2
n file (dossier; loose bundle of data) jue2
n grammar (rules and structure of a language) tlie2
n history (organized account of past events), chronicle seng2
v indicate hien3
n information baud2
n insult siak2
v invite bau3
n issue, edition (of periodical etc.) zie2
n label mue2
n language (the verbal communication technique of a people) plak2
n letter (a message written and mailed) suo2
v lie (utter a known falsehood) kie3
n list zong2
n magazine (periodical publication) due2
v mail (transmit postally) xing3
n map (drawing of planet's surface) gaut2
n meaning (semantic content of a word) pluid2
n message (batch of transmitted information) fi2
n movie, motion picture pen2
n name dlek2
n news, tidings deid2
n newspaper zaup2
n noise (confused/randomized sound/stimuli) klap2
n note, annotation jaig2
aj opposite blot5
n page (one side of a sheet of paper in a book) fuad2
n photograph fiok2
n poem ngi2
v praise, compliment, laud dlio3
v print (to copy marks by pressing inked objects on paper) vlue3
n promise (a claim about one's future actions), pledge ngoin2
n protest, objection bui2
n question, query tluo2
v quote, cite dak3
v read feing3
n record (a cache of information) tsu2
v request, ask for tsom3
v say, tell, express in words gep3
aj secret ngam5
n sentence (of words) aip2
v sing klie3
v speak, talk dlaim3
n story, report tsiug2
v suggest, propose (offer an idea) naut3
n syllable flei2
n symbol, sign, token dziet2
v thank (express gratitude toward) faik3
av unquotingly jak4
n vocabulary (sum of words available to a person/people) blak2
n voice kue2
n vowel fuen2
v warn kle3
n word uig2
v write piob3
n game (a rule-governed system of competitive amusement) tia2
n game, match (one particular encounter between competitors) dlei2
n athletics (games involving physical skill), sports kloin2
n score (the tally of points in a competition) hu2
n umpire, referee, official bluod2
n ball (spheroidal plaything) flep2
n bat, stick, racket/racquet (any ball-hitting tool) pluang2
n ski dlu2
n baseball vei2
n basketball uik2
n football (association f~), soccer floi2
n football (American/tackle f~) kleit2
n gymnastics klau2
n hockey beit2
n pool, billiards vaut2
n tennis bet2
n chess djio2
v play, recreate, frolic puib3
aj same, identical neik5
aj similar maik5
aj different seit5
aj/pn other, another miuk5, miuk2
v change (become/make different), vary gliu3
v imitate, mimic ain3
aj original, non-imitative tlam5
n prototype, exemplar, archetype, model (for all Xs) gait2
n copy (a duplicate) tiu2
num zero ga5
num one xua5
num two plaig5
num three gliag5
num four bliut5
num five dzig5
num six nuin5
num seven gi5
num eight klub5
num nine moi5
num ten txod5
num hundred plau5
num thousand pliak5
num million (10^6) nau5
num billion (10^9) buim5
num trillion (10^12) vang5
num half (1/2) hum5
pt point, comma vek1
n quantity (amount / number / magnitude) pai2
n number, numeral (a word or symbol indicating quantity) ngiet2
v count, enumerate bleg3
v measure dzep3
n ratio, rate, proportion lain2
v add, append, join so as to cause an increase muk3
v remove, subtract, take away, delete xeg3
v increase (become or make greater in quantity) txaig3
v decrease (become or make lesser in quantity) vuo3
v multiply liap3
v divide vliub3
n total, sum, aggregate muag2
n rest (of ...), remainder, leftovers, remnant kloi2
aj whole, entire, complete nia5
aj all (the whole number or entire sum of) dzied5
aj many (a large number of) gain5
aj few (a small number of) mua5
aj several giu5
aj some (indefinite) puk5
aj much (a large quantity of) goi5
aj more (a larger quantity of) zi5
aj most (the largest quantity of) vle5
aj little (a small quantity of) ziot5
aj less (a smaller quantity of) klion5
aj least (the smallest quantity of) dja5
n part vla2
n piece (a part broken/cut/separated from something larger) vuen2
n section, segment (a part somehow different/separated from others) meig2
n allocation, allotment, portion (someone's share of X) tluam2
n group nian2
n batch (quantity of things done/produced at one time) mio2
n bundle, bunch (group of things tied or grouped together) xuk2
n majority floid2
n minority gliup2
n density plib2
aj dense (of much density), concentrated, thick, intense klaup5
aj rarefied, tenuous, diffuse, dilute, sparse, wispy klo5
aj full, filled fuo5
aj empty vlied5
n degree (the extent/intensity/scope of an action/condition/relation) leb2
av at least, not less than (>=) dzam4
av at most, only, just, merely, not more than (<=) maid4
av much, very (to a large degree; with great intensity) blueng4
av more (to a larger degree) jeig4
av most (to the largest degree) ein4
av little (to a small degree; with almost no intensity) kuad4
av less (to a smaller degree) son4
av least (to the smallest degree) ngio4
av enough, sufficiently flap4
av almost, nearly poi4
av too much, excessively ku4
av too little, insufficiently jiag4
n size (degree of largeness or smallness) niuk2
aj huge, enormous, gigantic fli5
aj big, large (of much size) glu5
aj small (of little size) txoip5
aj tiny, minuscule gui5
v expand, grow voip3
v shrink, contract kub3
n distance (amount of space from X to Y) fiek2
aj/av far (at / to a great distance) pang5, pang4
aj/av near (at / to a little distance) be5, be4
aj present (existing in the indicated place; contra-absent) bap5
aj absent gluak5
n place, location kai2
n length (distance from one end to the other) pa2
aj long (of much length) bib5
aj short (of little length) gaik5
n width (degree of wideness or narrowness) kio2
aj wide, broad (of space between objects) nen5
aj narrow, of little width (of space between objects) dzaig5
n thickness (of a solid object, etc.) eb2
aj thick, fat (large from one surface to the opposite surface) huan5
aj thin, slender (small from one surface to the opposite surface) glied5
n height (distance from ground / baseline to top) tsoi2
aj high, tall (of much height) ngaig5
aj low, short (not tall; of little height) mup5
n depth (distance from ground / baseline down to bottom) xue2
aj deep, profound (of much depth) med5
aj shallow (of little depth) xub5
aj horizontal lue5
aj vertical naim5
aj diagonal, slanted fle5
aj sloped, inclined/declined (not horizontal) zuom5
n angle (the relation of two lines radiating from a point) mop2
n position (location relative to others) aid2
n region, area (a quantity of space within boundaries) kluak2
n space, room, void kaid2
n connection, joint, junction djiub2
n environment, surroundings, context txiap2
n front plup2
n rear, back part of hua2
n side, flank, lateral area hiod2
n middle, center tsuit2
n top, peak, summit xo2
n bottom veit2
n edge xuen2
aj inner, internal, interior suam5
aj outer, exterior, external fliu5
n limit, boundary klon2
v find (discover the location of) tliat3
v misplace (lose; become unable to find) din3
n direction (orientation of motion) miok2
av up pliuk4
av down tleit4
n north hi2
n south gip2
n east biat2
n west ngui2
aj right(-hand) geim5
aj left(-hand) plep5
av away (from this or that place) djaud4
av back (to previous place / condition) vaup4
aj inverted, upside-down jei5
av backward (in reverse order) je4
aj direct, immediate (with no intermediaries or obstacles) xid5
aj serpentine, meandering, convoluted kluib5
n city vlip2
n village puong2
n rural area, countryside klai2
n source, origin tlin2
n route, path, course feid2
n destination tsiu2
v aim (to point/direct X toward Y) bluik3
v attract jiud3
v avoid, evade, keep away from plio3
n barrier, obstacle vuap2
n base, node, station (point from which things go or are done) ngum2
v bring (cause something to come along with one toward a place) djai3
v capture, seize noit3
v carry (move while supporting) bloig3
v come, arrive (at indicated place) biab3
v drift, wander bliad3
v drive, impel, propel tsaut3
v emit (to send out any form of matter/energy in any manner) ngieb3
v enter, go into zui3
v escape, flee from kuak3
v fly (move through the air) zio3
av forward, ahead dzuak4
v gather, collect (bring or come together) flaung3
v go (move from starting point to elsewhere) nguig3
n journey, trip, voyage nguot2
v leave, depart, go away from blau3
n load, burden flua2
v meet, encounter, come across fuem3
v miss, fail to hit/reach/see etc. niek3
v move (engage in motion / cause to engage in motion) plek3
v put, place, translocate xuep3
v reach, extend as far as tlaud3
v release (quit keeping/restraining) flau3
v remain, stay giok3
v repel se3
v restrain, inhibit, hold back glau3
v retrieve, fetch (go to X and bring it back) jiu3
v return (go or send back to previous place/condition) juon3
v ride (sit/perch in/on a vehicle/horse/etc. and travel) le3
v roll (move like a ball/cylinder by turning over and over) txuan3
v send, dispatch, transmit djaun3
v slide, slip, glide juan3
v stretch, extend plo3
v turn, divert (send in a different direction) not3
v turn, rotate, revolve lep3
v visit xa3
n airplane, aircraft puom2
n bicycle glad2
n boat tei2
n bus tse2
n canal, channel, ditch zaung2
n car, automobile (wheeled motor vehicle) plain2
n cart, carriage, wagon (wheeled vehicle; not self-propelled) guad2
n motorcycle soing2
n port gliat2
n railroad dlai2
n road djo2
n rocket iak2
n ship gleip2
n street tlauk2
n train (of railroad) txein2
n truck {British: lorry} (motor vehicle for cargo-carrying) tien2
n vehicle liod2
n age (degree of oldness / youngness) plug2
aj young (of little age; having existed/lived for a brief time) sa5
aj old (of much age; having existed/lived for a long time) saim5
aj new, novel, recent (having been known for a brief time) heit5
aj old (of long standing; having been known for a long time) faub5
aj permanent, perpetual huong5
aj constant, invariant, stable he5
aj temporary, transient lueng5
n interval (quantity of time between events X and Y) buin2
aj irregular, sporadic, intermittent txiut5
aj regular, periodic (at uniform intervals) djip5
n rhythm xuot2
n time (e.g. "do it 3 times"), occasion, instance, iteration tsum2
av again, once more, re- muem4
v alternate, take turns (do X then Y then X then Y) teip3
n cycle (one complete performance of a periodic process) miug2
n frequency (degree of oftenness or seldomness) giud2
av frequently, often giud4
av seldom, rarely guen4
n duration (amount of time consumed) ngieg2
aj long (of much duration) fleig5
aj short, brief (of little duration) gliom5
aj gradual blio5
aj sudden, abrupt tuen5
v begin, commence, start vluop3
v continue, keep on doing/being xie3
v pause, hesitate, suspend action temporarily siod3
v end, conclude, finish tain3
v cease, stop doing, quit pau3
v delay, retard, tarry, postpone huem3
v rush, hurry, hasten ngiab3
n period, era, epoch sek2
n moment, an instant ne2
av always (at all times) ngia4
av ever (at any time) tai4
av never pieb
n time (the dimension/continuum of past-present-future) xaung2
n past (the p~), earlier time fuing2
n present (the present time; the now) xung2
n future (the f~) blieng2
av already (prior to the time mentioned) niun4
av still, yet (even until the time mentioned) dzim4
av yesterday flu4
av today viek4
av tomorrow ploi4
av long ago (in the far past) vai4
av recently (in the near past) pluek4
av now (at this time) vlop4
av soon (in the near future) vueg4
av eventually (in the far future) djiep4
aj/av early, premature flue5, flue4
av/aj timely, prompt, on time ngob4, ngob5
aj/av late, tardy zup
n speed, velocity (degree of fastness or slowness) blap2
av quickly, rapidly, swiftly (with much speed) gluong4
av slowly (with little speed) djuap4
n series (a number of similar things following one another) dleig2
n sequence, order (temporal arrangement of events in a series) mun2
aj last, final (after all others) ble5
aj prior, preceding, previous, contra-next pliut5
aj next (coming immediately after; "tomorrow" = the next day) djop5
n season viom2
n spring (the season) diup2
n summer vlek2
n autumn, fall boip2
n winter na2
n century nuen2
n year men2
n month voi2
n week feb2
n weekday txua2
n day (24-hour period) mong2
n date (coordinates of a day given in some timekeeping system) li2
n day (daytime -- as opposed to night), diurnal period tloi2
n night juong2
n morning (dawn to noon) txui2
n noon kug2
n afternoon (noon to dusk) vu2
n evening (dusk to midnight) mi2
n midnight tsap2
n graveyard shift, middle of the night (midnight to dawn) bing2
n hour (60 minutes) jien2
n minute (60 seconds) paing2
n second (1/60th of a minute) koing2
n holiday txuep2
n sabbath (day of week with religious significance) vlui2
v wait (for), await ji3
n air sang2
n alcohol huot2
n ash djuob2
n brass (copper-zinc alloy) biem2
n carbon dziob2
n chalk vua2
n chemical (substance made by or used in chemistry) pin2
n clay luk2
n cloth, fabric (material made of threads) vuop2
n coal fa2
n copper djiu2
n dirt, earth (tangible), soil fleb2
n dust tliob2
n element (substance of irreducible simplicity) go2
n fat (oily/greasy material from animal adipose tissue or plant seeds) dlauk2
n fuel gliob2
n glass xe2
n gold (the precious metal) dziep2
n ice tsun2
n ink kiop2
n iron ngeing2
n jade (the tough green gemstone) fuit2
n jewel, gem tsion2
n lead (the metal) lion2
n leather (prepared hide) laib2
n medicine (substance that makes one healthy) taud2
n metal noi2
n mineral, ore klik2
n mud txum2
n neon diong2
n nitrogen biug2
n oil (a combustible fatty liquid that will not mix with water) tlaib2
n oil (crude oil), petroleum txeg2
n oxygen kliu2
n paint txuong2
n paper glid2
n plastic (synthetic/processed moldable material) ngiob2
n poison, toxin dim2
n potassium dzeip2
n quartz kla2
n rock, stone vleid2
n rubber lim2
n salt plia2
n sand luod2
n silk djong2
n silver (the metal) hiet2
n soap heik2
n sodium lui2
n steam poip2
n steel dob2
n sulfur dlam2
n tar (dark viscous liquid obtained by destructive distillation) djud2
n tin (the metal) klue2
n water pieg2
n wax dji2
n wood (the substance) flen2
n wool biad2
n beer heip2
aj bitter mum5
n bread tsio2
n butter vliet2
n cheese muo2
n chocolate ma2
n flavor, taste glaub2
n flour (grain-powder) diat2
n food ban2
n honey tiud2
n milk blui2
n pasta, noodles pie2
n pizza min2
n salad nguok2
n sandwich ngiub2
n sausage klep2
n soup txep2
aj sour dlait5
n spice, seasoning klua2
n sugar som2
aj sweet juing5
n vinegar txaid2
n wine zuob2
n arch viab2
n band, tape, flat strip dok2
n block (solid flat-surfaced mass of material) dlud2
n branch (small part going out from main part) pluk2
n bump, protrusion ba2
n card (stiff rectangle of material) zuo2
n circle jain2
n coil kom2
n cone muom2
n crack, fissure giob2
n cross (perpendicular intersection of linear items) klop2
n crystal xaud2
n cube mom2
n curve hed2
n cylinder muod2
n dent, nick, indentation seing2
n disk, disc laun2
n drop (of liquid) job2
n film (very thin layer) plueng2
aj flared (opening up or spreading out from axis) zued5
n foam, froth hoig2
n form, shape liab2
n furrow, rut, groove sie2
n garbage, trash, rubbish djien2
n gas nuom2
n helix (any corkscrew-shaped object) dueg2
n hole bluek2
n jelly (gelatinous semi-solid material), gel vub2
n juice (fluid extracted from something) nguon2
n layer plie2
n line (series of contiguous points) hiog2
n liquid tluad2
n loop, circuit, closed curve giong2
n lump, clod, blob, piece of no particular shape ded2
n mark (visible traces left behind) duong2
n matter, material, substance pli2
n object (concrete tangible thing) baing2
n opening, orifice fliem2
n oval, ellipse via2
aj parallel tsa5
n paste (any thick soft dough-like material) sai2
n pattern (apparent systematic interrelationship) tliu2
n pile, heap, stack of things or of a substance flaun2
n plane (flat surface) xiam2
n plug, seal, stopper blie2
n powder buek2
n pyramid geib2
n ray paung2
n rectangle pliom2
n ring, torus gio2
n rust, corrosion baub2
n scratch beig2
n sheath gleb2
n sheet (thin rectangle of paper/cloth/etc.) fo2
n shower, sprinkle glueb2
n smoke blia2
n solid (not a gas or liquid) dzaip2
n sphere luen2
n spike, barb, cleat, thorn xaun2
n spiral, whorl miad2
n square txion2
n stripe txib2
n surface maig2
n swelling, inflation jaik2
aj tapered (becoming narrower toward an end) loi5
n thread, filament hiem2
n triangle kling2
n wave guep2
n wedge xi2
n wrinkle, crease vluag2
aj flat, planar txiu5
aj level, even (on the same level) lek5
aj smooth sum5
aj rough, coarse, contra-smooth tseing5
aj straight (not bent) djion5
aj bent dai5
aj pure, unadulterated, uncontaminated blan5
aj clean tsuip5
aj dirty, contra-clean suot5
aj open (not shut) bluen5
aj closed, shut vluin5
aj wet viug5
aj dry xuad5
aj sharp, keen, pointy, acute dzoin5
aj dull, blunt (of little sharpness) xuat5
aj soft, malleable, yielding to pressure noid5
aj hard, firm, resistant to pressure tuab5
aj flexible (easily able to bend) tut5
aj stiff, rigid buig5
aj elastic (able to regain shape/size after deformation) bueng5
aj durable, resilient, robust, strong (in this sense) dzia5
aj fragile, delicate txag5
n weight (degree of heaviness or lightness) bliang2
aj heavy (of much weight) plai5
aj light (of little weight) djum5
aj solid (contra-hollow) naib5
aj hollow beg5
aj snug (just large enough to contain X), tight (in this sense) tok5
aj loose (contra-snug), baggy ngaut5
aj taut, tight, tense, strained fom5
aj loose (contra-taut), slack biop5
aj viscous, thick (of high viscosity) pob5
aj runny, thin (of little viscosity) txieng5
v absorb bloi3
v adhere (hold tightly to / stick to something) lok3
v beat (repeatedly hit), batter heib3
v blow (move/cause to move as a current of gas) dziat3
v boil gein3
v bounce, rebound nuib3
v break (into pieces) dluang3
v build (join materials to create), construct diud3
v burn tluem3
v burst blaup3
v consume, deplete, expend, exhaust, use up gluot3
v contain ziem3
v crush (press on so as to break or re-shape) xeit3
v cut dlut3
v dig gliun3
v dissolve buom3
v evaporate viat3
v explode biap3
v float baum3
v flow (travel in a current) keing3
v fold flet3
v freeze huok3
v grind gluig3
v hang, suspend, dangle blaid3
v hit, strike dzaut3
v melt dieng3
v mix, blend flian3
v pollute, contaminate vliud3
v pour (cause to flow) sak3
v preserve, maintain (keep X in good condition) dluan3
v press (do pressure to; push upon with weight or force) ngiok3
v pry {British: prize} (raise/open/move with a lever) hag3
v pull (draw something toward oneself) djain3
v push (press on something in order to move it) tsoig3
v rot, decay faid3
v rub, abrade fluik3
v sew dliup3
v shake txauk3
v shoot (cause to rapidly go forth) hei3
v sink dzoing3
v spill (accidentally emit liquid) han3
v spread (begin to cover or cause X to cover more area) tag3
v stab, jab dliog3
v stir, agitate soid3
v suck klia3
v sweep tluop3
v tear, rip vig3
v tie, bind siep3
v trim, prune (cut off ragged edges) muab3
v wash nuap3
v weave tlum3
v wrap diang3
aj acid(ic) suob5
aj alkaline tleim5
n atom zuin2
n balance, equilibrium tsiud2
n basis, foundation (part which supports the rest) gua2
n electricity xoim2
n energy dzung2
n fire plaung2
n force kauk2
n gravity du2
n magnet ngaung2
n molecule glion2
n power pua2
n smell, odor, aroma glaig2
n strength (ability to exert physical power) dlog2
n stroke, jolt, blow of force tsuan2
n vacuum ngad2
n vapor, mist mai2
n polarity (electric, magnetic, etc.) peig2
aj positive dum5
aj negative paim5
aj gentle, mild meib5
aj violent, harsh kaun5
v see fuim3
n light (visible electro-magnetic radiation) dluk2
n color heb2
n shadow, shade flon2
v shine (radiate light) jon3
n picture, image bliom2
aj bright (with much light present) pip5
aj dark, dim (with little light present) dleid5
aj black foip5
aj gray {British: grey} xat5
aj white nung5
aj red flium5
aj orange (having a hue between red and yellow) kliep5
aj yellow tliok5
aj green tlap5
aj blue tuong5
aj purple vlaid5
aj brown djuid5
aj beautiful tsuet5
aj ugly niak5
n ornament, decoration tliab2
n blemish, blot plein2
v hide, conceal lia3
v reveal, disclose ngoip3
v examine, inspect deig3
v show, exhibit, display dei3
n sound (audible waves in the air) neig2
aj silent djiem5
aj quiet, soft, faint (of little sonic intensity) kluid5
aj loud (of much sonic intensity) fian5
v hear baig3
n music txuid2
n tone, pitch (frequency of sound waves) ngaug2
v whistle djue3
n temperature (relative amount of heat present) viun2
n heat, warmth dzuan2
aj cold, chilly, frigid teib5
aj cool vlium5
aj warm seid5
aj hot dium5
v bake (cook or harden by means of dry heat) tlom3
v cook (prepare by applying heat) vlaup3
v happen, occur koib3
n accident (unintentional and unexpected event) dliuk2
n miracle hoing2
n disaster, catastrophe haip2
n act, deed blauk2
n activity, bustle, ado dzu2
n result, consequence nueg2
v agree him3
v fight, combat kieg3
v protect, defend biud3
v attack soip3
aj good puip5
aj bad fluod5
n category, classification mek2
n kind, sort, type, variety (of...) zaun2
aj certain, sure flam5
aj probable (likely to happen/be) txiom5
v cooperate, collaborate blo3
v compete, strive, vie jem3
v help, assist, aid xiun3
v interfere, hinder djuab3
v succeed mip3
v fail liep3
aj simple bluip5
aj complex dlag5
n condition, state, status pliug2
v create, make (bring into existence) tlaing3
v destroy (contra-create; cause to cease existing) jiep3
n safety, security kong2
n danger (situation in which harm is probable) dzo2
aj easy giem5
aj difficult, hard buang5
aj true tluap5
aj false, untrue taun5
aj famous dzan5
aj mortal vlueng5
aj obscure, unheard of pleng5
v injure, damage, harm gaug3
v repair, fix huing3
n flaw, defect, imperfection vuak2
aj native (naturally belonging to a given realm) tsaug5
aj chief, main, primary, principal kuip5
aj auxiliary pluig5
aj normal, ordinary, usual glui5
aj strange, weird, unusual, peculiar jet5
n trouble, difficulty daut2
aj real, actual bleing5
n trick, chicanery pluap2
aj right, correct glab5
aj wrong, incorrect dju5
v reside, dwell, live kliag3
n camp, bivouac, temporary shelter toi2
n nest, den, lair (an animal's self-made house) luag2
v represent (act as a substitute for) dlad3
n substitute, surrogate (temporary replacement) blua2
n replacement (permanent substitute/substitution) muak2
aj common, general (shared by all members of a group) tluik5
aj specific, special, particular hin5
n ability, capacity (to do something) lo2
aj artificial (deliberately made by humans) tiab5
aj automatic hiab5
n chance, randomicity, luck kluon2
n civilization glo2
aj clear, plain (easy to see/understand) mam5
n compromise tait2
v consist of, be composed of zeb3
v depend on, rely on tsem3
v deserve, merit, be worthy of vleik3
n detail haub2
aj equal jui5
aj evil daim5
aj exact, precise tuad5
n example, sample zig2
n exercise, practice (effort made to improve skills/health) dau2
n experiment tlium2
aj fertile fliang5
n harmony (pleasing combination of stimuli) vein2
aj just, fair, equitable fleik5
n match (a thing suitably associated with another) vliak2
n method, manner, way (of doing), technique teig2
aj mutual, reciprocal huop5
aj naked, nude, exposed (without the usual cover) vli5
aj necessary, needed, required mut5
v need, require dziam3
aj possible (able to happen or be done) tlued5
v prevent (keep from happening) zuen3
n process, procedure tlig2
n program txaut2
n progress, advancement tsua2
n project, undertaking, venture duem2
n proof, evidence plian2
n quality, trait, attribute, characteristic kluat2
aj ready, prepared for a task / event klaug5
n relationship, association nied2
n right (a right to do/be ...) buan2
n role (an individual's function) vleip2
v save, rescue fiong3
n species vluen2
aj suitable, proper, fit(ting), appropriate dzuap5
n system xok2
n task, chore, job, assignment luong2
n technology dluet2
n tendency, propensity, inclination txob2
v try, attempt, endeavor jap3
v use, utilize tsuep3
n vogue, trend, fad, fashion tig2
v waste, misuse ngak3
aj wild, feral, untamed ting5
n work, effort, labor, toil nid2
n riot gliap2
n science txuik2
v serve (provide service to) djiuk3
n set (complete group of similar items) txuim2
n strike (work stoppage as protest) hem2
v support xong3
v test, check buak3
v torture, torment nga3
av perfective aspect moing4
av imperfective aspect txiud4
av habitual aspect gaing4
av progressive aspect ngium4
av perfect (retrospective) aspect glai4
av prospective aspect kuog4
av inceptive aspect kleim4
av inchoative aspect gliep4
av cessative aspect djuek4
av pausative aspect txaung4
av resumptive aspect txung4
av punctual aspect flueb4
av durative aspect vlam4
av delimitative aspect plium4
av protractive aspect bliug4
av superperfective aspect fuik4
av iterative aspect nab4
av random aspect die4
av frequentative aspect giud4
av semelfactive aspect te4
av simulfactive aspect keng4
av experiential aspect paud4
av intentional aspect foi4
av accidental aspect fep4
av distributive aspect ging4
av alternation aspect vuam4
av generic aspect loid4
av completive aspect puop4
av intensive aspect nod4
av moderative aspect gle4
av attenuative aspect paib4
av crescendo aspect ke4
av decrescendo aspect piom4
av future utility aspect tuing4
av state-change aspect dap4
av passive voice zod4
av causative voice duob4
av reflexive voice vliok4
av reciprocative voice pik4
av past tense fliop4
av present tense neid4
av future tense dlaung4
av short time distance nguat4
av medium time distance dloip4
av long time distance zag4
av short time interval tsab4
av medium time interval hion4
av long time interval djait4
av here (in/to this place) me4
av there (at/to that place) gia4
av there yonder vaing4
av short spatial distance paig4
av medium spatial distance glud4
av long spatial distance vuing4
av short spatial interval tlok4
av medium spatial interval vlueb4
av long spatial interval zon4

Reserved words for future use

klaud
veim
dzeb
zuat
fleit
buem
vliat
kluig
hiub
fliet
txoit
vain
hop
gleing
txan
piug
ziok
zuod
deb
tlu
blaub
song
tluek
txoid
flieb
kiab
dzuag
djiam
kueng
xaik
txiot
daik
gian
dzau
tsuong
ngot
djia
xiok
tsud
ngun
kliup
duag
hiep
sot
biong
voit
neing
ken
tsiom
floit
dzieb
nib
pu
kliut
zeid
pag
sueg
guem
flud
tsiop
kloim
dzuang
mieg
jab
flip
jeg
floing
dleip
tsain
tlad
feib
joip
buit
buot
guang
pug
gloing
tiet
buen
glaib
lop
kluip
plaid
kuing
vluing
hip
vop
bot
fieb
dleb
fap
vuab
vaung
blip
jueg
djuan
vlod
dliok
kleng
xai
tiob
luok
tsiog
dzuin
kaum
xieng
sian
tlait
xek
neib
daub
jieb
piet
tsaig
haig
gleit
foim
sing
luit
tlieb
jiem
txaug
viup
tso
tlab
dziub
tsiad
dzog
fluig
flaing
djit
kieng
gieg
sieng
djaid
zueg
dlot
jiod
nuon
xot
tluig
seig
muim
soib
hueb
faing
tik
glain
paup
lak
kliak
moig
diob
tliut
vlueg
djuip
djig
laung
djet
txied
guid
niem
lum
niat
guing
txiep
tsan
dluak
nguop
txon
bloing
giung
vlieg
vluak
djoing
txio
nuk
zaik
gliet
xiod
dziap
kloip
tuok
seim
vib
zid
toim
goik
djuig
vaud
vuib
foig
sap
dliag
dla
no
diam
niang
xueb
huag
hian
klei
guok
zeng
vloik
vluk
txaub
pion
ngod
sun
tsuok
kluam
djied
mieb
tlit
dzuot
txeng
fluim
vab
fliup
nub
dzuek
plaib
gleng
mued
suan
flag
foit
plauk
had
vlang
guap
huang
klued
sat
dog
jam
xaum
pim
nuat
diep
blod
pe
faim
peib
guit
gleik
fliep
jaum
xuob
glub
kuat
hek
pluab
liu
muig
vlub
nem
dziek
muin
djiok
saug
xiag
haug
dzi
dzet
toib
biuk
nup
pong
ngoim
goip
jaun
tsiuk
djen
niut
dzok
xiut
djun
dliud
jiap
vliek
hon
djug
txad
tlieg
ni
xuod
dliap
glut
gon
zuep
ngoid
puat
nat
dliad
klaik
vlap
djub
gluok
ket
kaib
nig
djuod
kaug
sog
viak
died
xuog
gloi
tsig
fling
djek
hueg
fug
ngait
dlaib
tlop
sio
pian
djid
piong
blam
giup
fauk
vlian
dzong
hoib
biam
nap
hio
tleing
miag
guin
buab
noig
pluet
dong
dziab
tsuat
niap
sait
bued
tlien
vlem
djuom
vlon
vlup
sion
djiod
hud
djaut
ploin
deng
plid
flaig
zoib
dzuog
juam
dluab
dlied
vog
pain
joing
tluom
piab
lik
bleik
piuk
tom
juob
kiang
tlue
dluok
hom
pum
suom
jein
djiud
viub
gaud
dzib
nguag
luog
vliung
nguit
tluet
viag
hiat
piut
vlin
djuop
vuek
pluing
djep
kloid
tsaup
gum
plin
txuig
ngiung
huat
blued
vaun
fut
dzueng
lod
bliup
naud
kuan
zain
pod
vuad
guab
pluok
gieng
luip
tiok
dam
keib
liong
veing
fliak
siud
foib
siap
tsaub
meip
plem
dloin
fet
gluid
taib
pop
kion
ning
luak
gluem
flung
gloid
klieb
nging
sud
gug
muid
tloip
nium
dzon
txoing
daug
lig
tsaun
faib
vloin
tuet
kiut
dliang
dlab
jiob
dluag
giet
flim
siog
klueb
vieb
suad
tsiem
suok
dzaung
liang
klit
dliet
miod
pluan
tseig
giun
tsoip
djuok
vlom
pluod
hup
dzaing
xit
tlik
zit
puem
fiem
nuod
vloing
tsek
xiuk
kuon
tlob
vlak
juep
txen
tlep
blem
geid
tsein
vot
klan
tap
miak
dzuob
ngub
lob
xeib
jium
tuot
jaip
txoin
siad
let
jueb
jaup
vuim
luig
tliug
ju
lad
tsuem
fluek
tieng
txueng
bak
veik
puan
bluem
tlian
zoik
gaip
bluib
bleng
ngian
pap
xem
jaud
flig
glein
siob
kliam
buo
vuet
tauk
vaum
dlon
vlieb
haid
djuin
sieg
buob
plait
piang
plong
vlaun
dlob
boig
fuob
fop
dzion
ziab
tued
flaip
luem
keim
vuod
vleing
nop
huab
naug
muam
tsod
tiot
zaim
sueb
gud
vieng
gliuk
feip
fuk
boid
tsaim
zuot
hiob
deing
nob
glen
dlid
nguod
vlaim
ngag
long
muap
gluen
kuk
tlaig
ploing
txok
hoin
bloin
viok
ko
fien
xiap
pluik
dliem
fuig
kluap
hied
pluip
pliup
nik
tieb
tim
gluap
kleip
puin
fag
ngiag
lub
bloik
tuin
blium
pun
tuik
tluag
blueg
bung
dain
bliung
vung
dlug
dait
tsiung
kei
zep
blaing
xiep
tsiong
kad
deib
naung
bliag
nguk
lued
kuem
got
tiak
tluat
leik
jag
sim
xim
klang
djog
jom
djeng
toit
flued
glued
dloib
duim
plaub
biung
jug
bliet
kuot
hiup
dlem
zeig
dlau
lom
ngeb
xak
hiang
sik
vliom
djiat
leg
led
fueb
bliot
hiut
xaip
muang
bang
blen
meim
xiang
vip
piung
tsoik
bied
vap
txing
vluap
mauk
kuin
gluing
djim
tsaud
puap
djuik
bian
piap
xian
fliat
miep
jig
dzeib
dliot
den
ngaun
klod
veib
seg
lait
ted
siup
dig
djiom
set
peid
tsoing
kliob
blaim
von
zoig
xob
vluam
tsed
ha
pliot
pliub
vion
viep
beb
xuib
poik
duk
vok
blion
tuek
sub
vluek
nguong
dziung
buop
joig
daum
zim
tuob
hiung
klaig
xuab
guet
hik
huon
gluang
dzuop
djoit
vluem
txuem
dlip
loik
mueb
suk
tlaug
tsid
nuang
jeng
tsieg
flun
dzun
vliod
guip
dluong
naun
txuab
ziop
gluod
viut
djaung
dlaup
get
luet
duab
juib
bluet
dluom
dliat
buap
nuek
laik
gaum
dang
djuim
naum
tsiap
puak
glauk
kluek
hung
dlion
xeig
ngeng
bluab
djot
vlag
biep
bein
kek
vlued
dzuom
suek
ngeig
glong
tuep
vlok
duop
biub
pein
hoid
blag
fliod
fem
zud
huit
maud
biak
plung
juot
tliek
dlop
jiog
pium
doing
dzen
kluom
txang
luot
vloig
xein
kluan
tsuek
mat
flod
tet
juik
txueb
gliong
glak
pleik
koip
txieb
txiup
haik
fit
vik
djeik
dliun
piub
buip
tuon
tsot
tib
dlim
duad
kliang
nguing
kien
djak
toip
ngiom
huak
plip
voim
boik
haing
saut
giod
djaim
tiog
txiug
xiem
fim
luin
peip
pad
mob
liog
fiep
xaub
txem
ped
gluom
nuet
blied
toing
djueng
pluong
dzian
lup
tsin
txik
kluit
top
blain
gluob
glap
floik
dzuat
txueg
klok
ngud
ngap
gloik
dlik
vloip
djiog
blug
liem
gueng
bluep
viem
vlong
fluing
glok
fak
liak
txid
gluit
deik
bliub
leip
jun
gliad
fuan
said
diem
fluom
niung
ged
dlong
fieng
tiap
guig
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